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Vein Disorders


Venous Reflux Disease or Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Venous Reflux Disease or Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI), develops when the valves stop working properly and allow blood to flow backward (Reflux) and pool in the lower extremities. Healthy veins in the legs have valves that keep the blood flowing to the Heart. The Arteries carry the blood down to the body and our veins carry the blood back to the Heart for proper circulation.

Over 15 Million people go undiagnosed. PAD and CVI is becoming more common and is a growing problem. About 50% of people with these chronic diseases remain untreated

If venous reflux is left untreated symptoms can worsen over time.

Signs and Symptoms of Venous Reflux Disease or Chronic Venous Insufficiency:

  • Leg Pain
  • Leg Swelling
  • Cramps
  • Heaviness or Tiredness
  • Fatigue
  • Throbbing
  • Itching
  • Burning
  • Restlessness/ Restless Leg Syndrome
  • Skin Discoloration/ Skin Changes
  • Ulcers/ Open Sores or Wounds

Factors that contribute to Vein Disease:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Family History
  • Multiple Pregnancies
  • Obesity
  • Prolonged Sitting or Standing

Ultrasound of the veins in the legs can determine if Venous Reflux is present.

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), is a term used to describe blocked arteries outside the heart. It is a buildup of plaque in the walls of the arteries which limits or stops the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your limbs. If blood cannot reach your feet, it may cause pain while walking and cause damage to the skin and muscles in your legs and feet. PAD also puts you at greater risk of stroke or heart attack. PAD affects at least 12 million people in the US. About 50% of those diagnosed go untreated and risk amputation.

Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Arterial Disease:

  • Pain in legs and feet
  • Fatigue in leg muscles, thighs and buttocks during activity
  • Skin changes
  • Open sores or wounds that won’t heal
  • Lower temperature in one leg compared to the other
  • Poor or decreased nail growth in toes

Factors that contribute to PAD:

  • Age (Over 40)
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • High Cholesterol
  • High Blood Pressure
  • History of Heart Attack or Stroke

May-Thurner Syndrome/ Iliac Vein Compression Syndrome

May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), also known as the iliac vein compression syndrome, is a condition in which compression of the common venous outflow tract of the left lower extremity may cause discomfort, swelling, pain or blood clots (deep venous thrombosis) in the iliofemoral veins. Specifically, the problem is due to left common iliac vein compression by the overlying right common iliac artery. This leads to stasis of blood, which predisposes to the formation of blood clots. Uncommon variations of MTS have been described, such as the right common iliac vein getting compressed by the right common iliac artery. In the 21st century the May-Thurner syndrome definition has been expanded to a broader disease profile known as nonthrombotic iliac vein lesions (NIVL) which can involve both the right and left iliac veins as well as multiple other named venous segments. This syndrome frequently manifests as pain when the limb is dependent (hanging down the edge of a bed/chair) and/or significant swelling of the whole limb.

Signs and Symptoms of May-Thurner Syndrome:

*If you have MTS, you need to be aware of the symptoms of DVTs so you can seek medical attention.

*If you have a Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT (leg or arm clot), you will notice:

  • Pain or tenderness in your arm or leg – often described as a cramp or Charley horse – with one or more of the following:
  • Swelling
  • Red or purple skin color
  • Warm to the touch




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May-Thurner Syndrome

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Arterial Disease

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Vein Disease

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